IGL database (beta)

Year Title Short summary Country Author
2016 Performance Responses to Competition across Skill-Levels in Rank Order Tournaments: Field Evidence and Implications for Tournament Design

In the context of online developer tournaments this study found that added rivalry is likely to induce higher performance given that failing to exert effort will reduce the likelihood of winning a prize. Tournament organizers can leverage contest size, dividing competitors by ability, and opening entry to all, as policy tools to manipulate the performance of competitors, particularly when changes allow the reallocation of prize money.

United States Boudreau, K., Lakhani, K., Menietti, M.
2015 Relative Pay Comparisons in the Workplace: Field Evidence on Effort and Labor Supply

Effects of relative pay on effort and labour supply are being examined in the context of an Indian manufacturing plant where co-workers' wages are exogenously varied. Results forthcoming.

India Shamdasani Y., Kaur S., Breza, E.
2015 Behind the GATE Experiment: Evidence on Effects of and Rationales for Subsidized Enterpreneurship Training

Is the GATE Programme/Entrepreneurship training a valid response to various forms of market failure (allocative inefficiency in credit, labour, insurance and human capital markets)? Can such a programme have an effect on business sales, earnings or employees?

United States Fairlie, R.W., Karlan, D., Zinman, J.
2015 The Impact of Enhanced Business Training for High-Potential Entrepreneurs in Colombia

This experiment in Colombia will test the impact of a business training programme. Results forthcoming.

Colombia Schoar, A.
2015 Innovation Experiments: Researching Technical Advance, Knowledge Production and the Design of Supporting Institutions

Field experiments have the potential to provide unambiguous causal evidence on innovation topics while simultaneously assisting organisations with their innovation.

United States Boudreau, K., Lakhani, K.
2015 Interfirm Relationships and Business Performance in China

A business networking programme on firm performance in China, and how groups composition and meeting frequency can facilitate trust and information flows. Results forthcoming.

China Cai, J., Szeidl, A
2015 Is Microcredit a Blessing for the Poor? A Meta-analysis Examining Development Outcomes and Contextual Considerations

In this meta-analysis what particularly stands out is the effect of microcredit on female empowerment. With respect to entrepreneurship and economic development outcomes, microcredit appears to have the most value in deprived contexts, but overall, results are highly dependent on context.

Chliova, M, Brinckmanna, J., Rosenbusch, N.
2015 Unpacking the Determinants of Entrepreneurship Development and Economic Empowerment for Women

A 5-day enterprise training programme for women in Kenya. Results forthcoming.

Kenya McKenzie, D., Paruzzolo, S.
2015 Growing Small and Medium Enterprises by Encouraging Exports: Evidence from Argentina

Evaluation comparing the impact of a managerial consulting program with training on export business models in Córdoba, Argentina. Results forthcoming.

Argentina Castro, L., Hallak, J.
2015 CréaJeunes - Small Business Training

Creajeunes offers support to young people from poorer neighbourhoods to get them involved in entrepreneurship. Results forthcoming.

France Duflo, E., Crepon, B., Huillery, E., Pariente, W.
2015 The Role of Hard and Soft Skills in Entrepreneurial Success: Experimental Evidence from Uganda

Evaluating a specific training program for youth in Uganda, recently graduated from secondary shool, aimed at identifying the differential importance of "hard" and "soft" skills. Results forthcoming.

Uganda Fiala, N., Carney, D., Gertler, P.
2015 High Incentives, Sorting on Skills -- Or just a Taste for Competition? Field Experimental Evidence from an Algorithm Design Contest

Workers who sort into institutional settings they prefer may work twice (or many more times) as hard in these preferred settings. This productivity effect is especially important in institutional settings where a taste for competition is strongest.

United States Boudreau, K., Lakhani, K.
2015 Growth Vouchers

A government-led voucher scheme to help SMEs access expert advice on business growth. Results forthcoming.

United Kingdom Sanders, M.
2015 Training and Consulting Services for Managers: Experimental Evidence from Bangladeshi Garment Production Lines

Evaluation of a training and consulting program for managerial staff in Bangladeshi garment factories to understand how new management practices are adopted and implemented and what determines their success.

Bangladesh Macchiavello, R., Woodruff, C.., Akerlof, R.
2015 Upgrading Management Technology in Colombia

Examines the differential impacts of group management consulting versus individualised management consulting on firm performace in Colombia, and whether management practices are partially responsible for the gap in firm productivity in developing countries. Results forthcoming.

Colombia McKenzie, D., Maloney, W., Iacovone, L.
2015 Impact Evaluation of the Entreprenant Status in Cotonou

Examines a program in Benin that drastically reduces costs to formalize a business, while also offering tax mediation and training. Results forthcoming.

Benin McKenzie, D., Pouliquen, V., Benhassine, N., Santini, M.
2015 Returns to Consulting for SMEs

A business skills training intervention for SME owners and managers in metro Manila, the Philippines. Results forthcoming.

Philippines Fischer, G., Karlan, D.
2015 Social Networks and Productivity Spill-Over within Firms

Examines the effectiveness of a specific management production routine relying on knowledge transfer of managers in a Bangladeshi garment factory. Results forthcoming.

Bangladesh Menzel, A.
2015 Attracting Early Stage Investors: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

By randomising the information sent to potential investors on AngelList over e-mail, this experiment finds evidence that the founding team of a startup has strong influence over the investor's decision to invest.

United States Bernstein, S., Korteweg, A., Laws, K.
2015 The Impact of Credit-scoring on SME Lending and Performance in the Philippines

A loan programme for SMEs in the Philippines. Results forthcoming.

Philippines Byran, G., Jakiela, P., Karlan, D.
2015 Employee Recognition and Performance: A Field Experiment

In the context of a basic, short-term data entry job, unannounced provision of public recognition to employees yielded an economically significant increase in performance. Results suggest that recognition works best when it is provided exclusively, but not too exclusively. The performance increases in exclusive recognition are mainly driven by strong positive responses of non-recipients, which is most likely due to conformity preferences.

Germany Bradler, C., Dur, R., Neckermann, S., and Non, A.
2015 Groupements de Createurs: Encouraging Youth Entrepreneurship in France

Youth entrepreneurship training programme in France. Results forthcoming.

France Algan, Y., Ceci-Renaud, N., Crépon, B., Huillery, E., Parienté, W.
2015 Testing a 3rd Party Contract Enforcement Solution in a Peruvian Textile Cluster

An online platform for contract enforcement in the Peruvian textile sector. Results forthcoming.

Peru Bird, M.
2015 Friends at Work: Can Peer Support Stimulate Female Entrepreneurship?

Women may face more constraints than men to becoming entrepreneurs, but are not poor entrepreneurs. A potentially important factor limiting financial inclusion efforts is inadequate peer support among many women who have potential as entrepreneurs.

India Field, E., Jayachandran, S., Pande, R., Rigol, N.
2015 Evaluating the Effects of Entrepreneurship Edutainment in Egypt

An encouragement design experiment involving an entrepreneurship reality tv programme and website with business training materials. Results forthcoming.

Egypt Barsoum, G., Crépon, B., Dyer, P., Gardiner, D., Michel, B., Moaz, M., Parienté, W.
2015 "Open" Disclosure of Innovations, Incentives and Follow-on Reuse: Theory on Processes of Cumulative Innovation and a Field Experiment in Computational Biology

In the context of an online software development tournament, intermediate disclosure policy increased information and signaling in
the innovation environment. Final disclosure promoted higher levels of entry and effort and independent experimentation; while it generated a diversity of approaches, this led to considerable effort devoted to suboptimal approaches and overall performance achieved.

Boudreau, K., Lakhani, K.
2015 Innovation Vouchers

A voucher programme for SMEs in Denmark. Results forthcoming.

Denmark Schneider, C.
2015 The Impact of Secured Transactions Reform on Access to Capital for Small and Medium Enterprises in Colombia

In the context of SME's in Colombia, researchers are evaluating the impact on firm performance of a legal reform which will provide a framework for the use and enforcement of movable collateral. Results forthcoming.

Colombia Schoar, A., Eslava, M.
2015 Does Working from Home Work: Evidence from a Chinese Experiment

An intervention that allowed randomly selected employees in a Chinese travel agency call centre to work from home appeared to have significant positive effects on worker performance.

China Bloom, N., Liang, J., Roberts, J., Ying, Z.J.
2014 Increasing Personal Initiative in Small Business Managers or Owners leads to Entrepreneurial Success: A Theory-Based Controlled Randomized Field Intervention for Evidence-Based Management

This particular management training was successful at improving knowledge and intangible skills that translated into successful organisational medium- to long-run outcomes for small businesses.

Uganda Glaub, M., Frese, M., Fischer, S., Hoppe, M.
2014 Managerial Capital And Business Transformation In An Emerging Market: The Impact Of Marketing Versus Finance Skills Training For Entrepreneurs

A programme offering marketing and sales training, and finance and accounting training in Cape Town, South Africa, was found to significantly improve firm survival as compared with the control group.

South Africa Anderson-Macdonald, S., Chandy, R., Zia, B.
2014 The Impact of Exporting: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Egypt

In the context of rug-making in Egypt, the opportunity to export provides evidence that learning-by-exporting occurs, and can lead to production quality and cost improvements.

Egypt Atkin, D., Khandelwal, A., Osman, A.
2014 What Field Experiments Have and Have Not Taught Us About Managing Workers

This meta-analysis of field experimental evidence on firm-employee relationships finds strong evidence that financial incentive increase output, and that non-financial approaches and social relations also have important impacts. However, many important topics have not been studied yet using field experiments, including recruiting, worker promotion, and training.

Levitt, S., and Neckermann, S.
2014 The Effect of Early Entrepreneurship Education: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment

This entrepreneurship education programme with final year primary school students in the Netherlands showed significant effects on student's non-cognitive entrepreneurial skills following the intervention.

Netherlands Huber, L. R., Sloof, R., van Praag, M.
2014 Taking the Leap: The Determinants of Entrepreneurs Hiring their First Employee

For young firms, the effect of business training on hiring a first employee remains ambiguous, and more research is needed to understand the relationships behind job creation by entrepreneurs.

United States Fairlie, R.W.
2014 Get up, Stand Up: The Effects of a Non-Sedentary Workspace on Information Elaboration and Group Performance

Interpersonal effects of physical space indirectly affect performance for group engaged in knowledge work. Physical space shapes performance indirectly by affecting group members' arousal and territorial behaviour, which together influence information elaboration. The physical context in which a group works can shape interpersonal dynamics and ultimately group performance.

United States Knight, A., Baer M.
2014 Short-Run Subsidies and Long-Run Adoption of New Health Products: Evidence from a Field Experiment

A randomised field experiment in Kenya uses differing levels of subsidies for an innovative bed net to suggest that temporary subsidies help short-term adoption rates of new (health) technologies and can perhaps have an effect on long-term adoption rates due to the learning experience.

Kenya Dupas, P.
2014 A Field Experiment on Search Costs and the Formation of Scientific Collaborations

Search costs continue to powerfully shape (and limit) the formation of collaborations between scientists. Formation of collaborations appears
to be highly sensitive to information-rich face-to-face interactions, which existing communications technologies may not sufficiently substitute.

United States Boudreau, K., Brady, T., Ganguli, I., Gaule, P., Guinan, E., Hollenberg, T., Lakhani, K.
2014 It's (Not) All About the Jacksons: Testing Different Types of Short-Term Bonuses in the Field

In the context of a semiconductor factory in Israel, experimenting with different types of incentives yielded results that provide some guidance for organisations trying to motivate their employees, showing that incentives of small magnitude can motivate employees to perform better at low or insignificant cost. Also, simply allowing employees to choose their preferred form of incentive can neutralize the possible negative effect of cash bonuses on intrinsic motivation.

Israel Bareket-Bojmel, L., Hochman, G., Ariely, D.
2013 Does Management Matter? Evidence from India

This management-focused consultancy intervention in the Indian textile industry showed positive impact on overall firm productivity through improved quality, efficiency and reduced inventory, and the effects of the experiment appeared to continue over time.

India Bloom, N., Eifert B., Mahajan, A., McKenzie, D., Roberts J.
2013 Creative Credits: A Randomized Controlled Industrial Policy Experiment

A voucher programme for SMEs in Manchester, UK, to invest in creative projects showed significant positive, but short-term, effects on innovation and sales growth.

United Kingdom Bakhshi, H., Edwards, J., Roper, S., Scully, J., Shaw, D., Morley, L., Rathbone, N.
2013 The Incentive Effect of IT: Randomized Evidence from Credit Committees

This experiment provides direct evidence on how information technologies can lead to the decentralisation of decision-making processes within organisations, and how IT solutions may represent an effective and low-cost alternative to steepening or increasing monetary incentives. Providing credit scores increased the effort committees put into solving more difficult problems, increased committees' overall output, and reduced the need for higher-level manager involvement in the decision-making process.

Colombia Paravisini, D. & Schoar, A.
2013 Stimulating Managerial Capital in Emerging Markets: The Impact of Business and Financial Literacy for Young Entrepreneurs

A business and financial literacy programme in Bosnia and Herzegovina showed no effect on business survival but appeared to have some limited effects on improving participant's business practices.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Bruhn, M., Zia, B.
2013 Entrepreneurship Programmes in Developing Countries: A Meta Regression Analysis

Entrepreneurship programmes have a strong positive effect on youths, particularly on labour-market activities and business-practice outcomes, and improve business knowledge and practice, particularly for existing entrepreneurs. However, there is no evidence that this translates into improved business performance and increased income.

Cho, Y., Honorati, M.
2013 How Costly Is Diversity? Affirmative Action in Light of Gender Differences in Competitiveness

In the context of a lab experiment replicating the job/hiring market, this study reveals that prior to affirmative action, women, including high-performing women, fail to enter the competition, thus the actual performance costs of affirmitive action are negligible. This implies that the long-term effects are positive, as increasing the representation of "minorities" may improve mentoring possibilities, and change the perception of "minorities'" ability to hold a high-ranking position.

Niederle, M., Segal, C., Vesterlund, L.
2013 The Impact of Consulting Services on Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Mexico

A management consultancy intervention in Mexico, focusing on firm growth, showed a positive impact on firm productivity in the short term and amount of employees (and overall wage bill) in the long term, as compared with the control group.

Mexico Bruhn, M., Karlan, D., Schoar A.
2012 What Are We Learning from Business Training and Entrepreneurship Evaluations Around the Developing World?

While research is advancing quickly in the area of business training and entrepreneurship evaluations in the developing world, many of the effects are still unknown and are highly dependent on the context.

McKenzie, D., Woodruff, C.
2012 The Novelty Paradox & Bias for Normal Science: Evidence from Randomized Medical Grant Proposal Evaluations

This experiment in the context of medical research grants indicates a discount of novelty in research proposals, which may be due to evaluators internalising the average effects of novelty for potential concerns about the lower success rates. However, this censoring of novel projects means that experiments never get a chance to be run and thus the benefits of generating greater diversity of experiments are curtailed. This is of concern to policy makers and society because research funds are being allocated towards more incremental research as compared to high variability and potentially breakthrough efforts.

United States Boudreau, K., Guinan, E., Lakhani, K., Riedl, C.
2012 KAIZEN for Managerial Skills Improvement in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Impact Evaluation Study in a Knitwear Cluster in Vietnam

In the context of knitwear and rolled steel clusters in Vietnam, preliminary short-run impacts of KAIZEN production training reveal positive impacts on entrepreneurs' management knowledge, firms business practices, and willingness-to-pay for the training. Researchers will evaluate the long-run results including a cost-benefit analysis.

Vietnam Sonobe, T., Suzuki, A., Otsuka, K., Nam Vu, H.
2012 The Impact of Training and Access to Capital for High-Potential Entrepreneurs in Colombia

Evaluation of two different entrepreneurship training programmes and access to certain types of capital in Colombia. Preliminary results available. Main results forthcoming.

Colombia Schoar, A.
2012 Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Tunisia

A university-based entrepreneurship training in Tunisia which appeared to have impact on participants behaviours and skills but no significant impact on increasing their self-employment.

Tunisia Premand, P., Brodmann, S., Almeida, R., Grun, R. Barouni, M.
2011 Performance Pay and Multi-dimensional Sorting: Productivity, Preferences and Gender

In this lab experiment intended to recreate sorting into jobs and productivity in those jobs within the labour market, there is stong evidence of multidimensional sorting, including gender, risk attitudes, and productivity. Therefore, firms should consider both effort effects and the self-selection of different types of workers.

Dohmen, T., Armin, F.
2011 Training or Technical Assistance? A Field Experiment to Learn What Works to Increase Managerial Capital for Female Entrepreneurs

In the context urban Sri Lanka the challenge in getting female-owned, subsistence-level microenterprises to grow may lie outside the realm of capital and skills. Results of the training and capital access intervention are somewhat more encouraging in terms of helping women who are outside the labour force to start enterprises more quickly.

Peru Valdivia, M.
2011 Fighting Procrastination in the Workplace: An Experiment

In the context of a commercial lending bank in Colombia, a behaviourally-sensitive incentive scheme led to significantly positive effects on performance and worker well-being, and results suggest that incentives alone were not sufficient to help overcome prior performance and worker well-being issues.

Colombia Cadena, X., Schoar, A., Cristea, A., Delgado-Medrano, H.M.
2010 Win or Lose the Battle for Creativity: The Power and Perils of Intergroup Competition

A laboratory experiment with undergraduate students in a US university explores the effects of intergroup competition and changes in group membership on creativity and collaboration.

United States Baer, M., Leenders, R., Oldham, G., Vadera, A.
2010 What's Advertising Content Worth? Evidence from a Consumer Credit Marketing Field Experiment

In the context of consumer lending in South Africa, advertising content has significant effects on demand, even relative to price effects. However, it was very difficult to predict the effects of different advertising content, and highlights the psychological premise that context matters.

South Africa Bertrand, M., Karlan, D., Mullainathan S., Shafir E., Zinman, J.
2009 Social Connections and Incentives in the Workplace: Evidence from Personnel Data

In the context of a fruit producer in the UK, social connections increase productivity of connected workers, but their effect on the allocation of managerial effort hinders firm productivity under fixed wages. Thus managerial behaviour is shaped by both social connections with subordinates and monetary incentives. In this setting, it is in the firm's best interest to foster social ties between management and workers, but to introduce monetary incentives to achieve an efficient interplay between social relationships and incentives.

United Kingdom Bandiera, O., Barankay, I., Rasul, I.
2009 Insurance, Credit, and Technology Adoption: Field Experimental Evidence from Malawi

In the context of farming in Malawi, reducing risk did not induce an increase in demand for credit, contrary to theoretical predictions. These results highlight the difficulties in mitigating environmental risks to poor farmers and to increase investments in better technologies.

Malawi Giné, X., Yang, D.
2008 Returns to Capital in Microenterprises: Evidence from a Field Experiment

In the context of microfinance in Sri Lanka, high variance in returns may limit the willingness of banks to lend to microenterprises, but it remains a puzzle why incremental growth and reinvestment remains such a challenges as many firms have exhibited a high level of returns.

Sri Lanka de Mel, S., McKenzie, D., Woodruff, C.
2007 Do Women Shy Away from Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?

This experiment, replicating the selection environment of competitive jobs, suggests that the gender gap could be due in part to men's overconfidence, and men's preferences for performing in competition. Further implications include that a surplus of low-performing men may too often self-select into these jobs while too many high-performing women do not.

United States Niederle, M., Vesterlund, L.
2007 Incentives for Managers and Inequality among Workers: Evidence from a Firm-Level Experiment

In the context of a fruit producer in the UK, the introduction of managerial incentives provides evidence of positive effects on worker productivity. In this context, when managers' pay is linked to the firm's performance, their interests become more aligned with those of the firm, which ultimately translates into stronger alignment of incentives of the workers they manage since the managers can target their efforts to specific workers. This also sheds some light on how managerial incentives determine earnings inequality among workers.

United Kingdom Bandiera, O., Barankay, I., and Rasul, I.
2007 Ambiguity Aversion As A Predictor Of Technology Choice: Experimental Evidence From Peru

In the context of a lab experiment conducted in the field, in Peru, among rural farmers, replicating farmers' technology choices, results suggest that the adoption of modern technologies depend more on farmers' aversion to ambiguity than their aversion to risk.

Peru Engle-Warnick, J., Escobal, J., Laszlo, S.
2006 Do innovation Vouchers Help SMEs to Cross the Bridge Towards Science?

An innovation voucher scheme in the Netherlands appears to successfully encourage SMEs to work with public research institutes on innovative projects.

Netherlands Cornet, M., Vroomen, B., van der Steeg, M.
2002 Monitoring, Motivation, and Management: The Determinants of Opportunistic Behavior in a Field Experiment

In the context of a call centre, behavioural heterogeneity observed through employees shirking when reduced monitoring is introduced has important implications for the design and management of reward systems. Management needs to balance monitoring strategies needed to regulate opportunistic employees with strategies needed to sustain the motivation of the substantial fraction of employees disinclined to shirk.

United States Nagin, D., Rebitzer, J., Sanders, S., Taylor, L.
2001 Differential Effects of Incentive Motivators on Work Performance

In the context of a major consumer credit company in a department where employees conduct measurable and relatively low-complexity tasks, there were significant differences between the effects on performance of routine pay for performance and the O.B. Mod.-administered money. This points to the importance of theory-based, systematic application procedures. Supervisors can quickly be trained in the steps of behavioural management, and can effectively implement them quickly to obtain positive performance results.

United States Stajkovic, A., Luthans, F.
1999 Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach

In the context of a lab experiment intended to mimick market entry decisions, overconfidence leads to the neglect of the quality of competition. When post-entry payoffs are based on individual abilities, individuals tend to overestimate their chances of relative success and enter more frequently. Surprisingly, overconfidence is even stronger when individuals' self-select into the experimental sessions knowing their success will depend partly on their skill.

United States Camerer, C. and Lovallo, D.